Archives: TESOL Working Paper Series

Past Issues

TESOL Working Paper Series Homepage

Volume 11, 2013

Volume 10, Issue 1 & 2, Fall 2012

Volume 9, Issue 1 & 2, Fall 2011

Volume 8, Issues 1 & 2, Spring & Fall 2010

Volume 7, Issue 2, Fall 2009

Volume 7, Issue 1, Spring 2009

Volume 6, Issue 2, Fall 2008

Volume 6, Issue 1, Spring 2008

Volume 5, Issue 2, Fall 2007

Volume 5, Issue 1, Spring 2007

Volume 4, Issue 2, Fall 2006

All volumes produced prior to Volume 4, Issue 2, Fall 2006 are available only in print. Please contact Dr. Hanh Nguyen at for further information.

The Hawaii Pacific University TESOL Working Paper Series is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 United States License. To view a copy of this license, visit or send a letter to Creative Commons, 171
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Cover image: "Calligraphy I," watercolor painting by Barbara Kellogg, 2011. Reproduced with permission from the artist.

TESOL (Applied Linguistics)

Department of English and Applied Linguistics

Volume 9, Issues 1 & 2, 2011
Editor: Hanh thi Nguyen
Assistant Editor: Brian Rugen

Hanh thi Nguyen

Using Praat to Teach Intonation to ESL Students
Hang Thu Le & Jennifer Brook
ABSTRACT: This paper explores whether using Praat, computer software for phonetic analysis, can rapidly improve pronunciation skills for ESL students. We report on a pilot study in which six ESL students used Praat for phonetic stress pattern analyses and sound manipulation, particularly with yes/no and wh-questions. The results showed that Praat could enable students to refine their pronunciation. By having instant visual feedback, students were able to actually observe the errors that they might not otherwise notice through listening alone. This pilot study also demonstrates that the training from Praat transferred to sound production as the students were able to produce these question forms more clearly and naturally in a subsequent dialog reading task. Through the results of this pilot study, this paper shows how ESL/EFL teachers and students can benefit greatly from this free and readily available open-source educational software.

Students’ Questioning in Classroom Discourse: A Preliminary Microanalysis
Pei-Ling “Bella” Lee
ABSTRACT: Since it is important to encourage students to ask questions in class, it is essential to inform students about when and how this action is done. This paper describes students’ questioning behaviors through the use of conversational analysis (Sacks, Schegloff, & Jefferson, 1974) and the notions of face in politeness theory (Brown & Levinson, 1987). Specifically, it aims to answer the questions of when and how students ask questions in classroom discourse. Using actual classroom recordings, I examine the sequential contexts leading up to the students’ questions and the organization of the students’ questions. This paper can assist students who are interested in participating in class but still need to learn how to perform this task. It can also offer useful information to language teachers.

Types of Pre-modified Input in Second Language Learning
Hong thi Xuan Le
ABSTRACT: According to Krashen (1985), input must be comprehensible so that acquisition can take place. Input can be made comprehensible in two ways: pre-modified input and interactionally modified input. This literature review focuses on the former–pre-modified input. It reviews experimental studies on three types of pre-modified input: simplification, elaboration, and enhancement as well as the effects of pre-modified input on second language acquisition. Based on the results of these studies, limitations of pre-modified input will be discussed. This paper also includes an illustration of pre-modified input in teaching English as a Foreign Language. I show how different types of pre-modified input can be combined together to help facilitate reading comprehension and vocabulary learning. The implications of these kinds of pre-modified input are discussed with respect to reading and vocabulary acquisition.

Hawaii Local English
Ken Cook
ABSTRACT: This paper describes Hawaii Local English, a variety of English that is neither Hawaii Creole English (aka Pidgin) nor standard North American English. Although it is very much like North American English, it shares many characteristics with Hawaii Creole English. These characteristics include palatalization of /t/ and /d/ before /r/, full vowels in unstressed syllables, absence of off-glides, lack of syllabic nasals, deletion of postvocalic /r/, primary stress pattern shifts, primary and secondary stress in compounds, intonation in yes/no questions, lack of lengthening of last stressed syllable, the diphthong /aw/, insertion of a glottal stop in Japanese names, verb agreement, singular much with plural nouns, past perfect for past tense, yeah as a tag, you folks as a pronoun, kinship terms, and names in their full form.

The Affordances of YouTube for Language Learning and Teaching
Jennifer Brook
ABSTRACT: The Web 2.0 site was examined with respect to how it affords authentic, student-centered instruction in English as a second or foreign language classrooms. A review of literature showed that there has been empirical and action research studies on the use of YouTube in both ESL and EFL contexts. YouTube has been shown to be a tool that facilitates language learning and teaching and confidence building, as well as affords authentic, student-centered activities with increased participation. With this said, some potential limitations of the use of YouTube and other Web 2.0 tools, such as student privacy and inappropriate material, is discussed. Finally, the paper concludes with sample lessons that demonstrate how YouTube can be used as a tool to produce an authentic, student-centered project.

Using Seedfolks with English Language Learners: A Resource File for ESL and EFL Teachers
Jean Kirschenmann

Teaching Activities
Jay Soon Ahn, Kimberly Cole, Aileen Mami Fujita, Sung Kyung (Sunny) Kim, Molly Lippert, Jesse Sliva, Aya Terazawa